Oceanographic Cruises

2017

Objective: The PEACETIME cruise aims at extensively studying and parameterizing the chain of processes occurring in the Mediterranean Sea after atmospheric deposition, especially of Saharan dust, and to put them in perspective of on-going environmental changes. More specifically, PEACETIME aims at assessing:
• the contribution of atmospheric deposition to nutrient concentrations and budgets in the Mediterranean Sea,
• the impact of atmospheric deposition on biogeochemical processes and fluxes in various trophic regimes and various climate conditions,
• the impact of aerosol deposition and marine aerosols emission on optical properties above and below the air-sea interface,
• the improvement of the representation of atmospheric deposition, its nutrient inputs and impacts on biogeochemistry at the process scale and at the basin scale using regional high resolution atmospheric and marine biogeochemical modeling of the Mediterranean basin.

 

2015

Objective: The main objective of PARTICULE project is to quantify the atmospheric flow of anthropogenic particles and their fate in the water column in the Mediterranean Sea. It is funded by the PACA region, Labex OT-Med and MERMEX. PARTICULE project focuses his research in the organic fraction of aerosols (phthalates, sugars, organic nutrients). Measurements of these compounds in the atmosphere are currently underway. The main objective of this campaign is to estimate the fate of these aerosols in the water column by measuring their concentration in seawater. Moreover, surface seawater was collected during this campaign and returned to the laboratory to initiate processes studies to understand the dynamics of degradation of these aerosols in seawater. the campaign MOOSE 11 (ANTARES), originally scheduled for 07.04.2015, was conducted along the PARTICLE campaign, following the request of the captain of the Tethys II. The related project is MERMEX.

 

Objective: Study of characteristics of suspended matter in the plume of the Rhone.

 

 

2014

Objective : The main objective is to begin a time series in the Algerian basin, like that of the MOOSE programme in the North Mediterranean basin, for the vital oceanic variables of profiles (CTD, oxygen, fluorescence, turbidity, currents) and spot samples (nutrients, inorganic carbon, pigments) over an array of surface-bottom stations. This long-term information will be essential for all of the scientific projects and models developed in the framework of MERMEX or other national and international programmes.

 

Objective: The RADLIT cruise in March 2013 was the first cruise aiming to assess, for the first time, the possible influence of groundwater discharges along the coast of Gulf of Lion, from the Rhone River to the Pyrenees. The RADLIT-2 cruise application fits into this context and allows the study zone to be extended from Marseille to Menton and thus evaluate the inputs of groundwater along the entire French Mediterranean coast, from Spain to Italy. This estimation will be done using short-lived naturally radioactive elements: radon-222, radium-223 and radium-224.

 

Objective: The DICASE cruise looked at the spatial variability of benthic recycling of organic matter and its interactions with carbonates. So it focused on organic and inorganic carbon dynamics at the interface between bottom water and sediments and provided some elements of response about the spatial variability of CO2 fluxes at the water-sediment interface. In sediments, organic carbon is mainly mineralized, whereas carbonates are either preserved or dissolved depending on the sediments’ pH. Therefore the amount of carbon stored in sediments depends on the rate at which terrigenous and marine organic matter is deposited, on the intensity of organic carbon recycling and on the pH conditions. The cruise provided an initial integrated study of carbonate dissolution in Rhone delta sediments by measuring pH profiles in situ and ex situ, total alkalinity, DIC, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in order to highlight any dissolution of carbonates in these sediments. The related project is MERMEX.

 

 

2013

  • DEWEX
Objective: Studying the role played by formation of deep water in the chemical composition and budgets of matter in the Mediterranean. Understanding the relationships between the way plankton food webs are organized and the hydrodynamic structures. The related project is MISTRALS – MerMEX

Objective: Analyzing natural radionuclides along the coast (Rhene-Banyuls). The related project is MERMEX.

 

Objective: The central idea of the DeWEx project is to perform continuous mesoscale sampling over the entire year of how the mixing layer evolves and its biogeochemical content in the entire north-western zone of the Mediterranean over a complete seasonal cycle, in order to directly link the key bloom episodes to the mechanisms of forcing which occurs in the area. As well as the two MOOSE-GE cruises, the DeWEX project included 4 other cruises: MOOSE-GE2012 in summer 2012, DoWEX2012 early autumn 2012, DeWEX2013-Leg1 in February 2013, DeWEX2013-Leg2 in April 2013, MOOSE-GE2013 in summer 2013 and DoWEX2013 early autumn 2013, thus resolving a complete annual cycle. The DoWEX experiment and DoWEX2013 cruise are part of the MERMEX programme and are principally related to the theme called Impacts of hydrodynamic conditions on biogeochemical budgets. DoWEX2013 cruise funding was provided by MERMEX.

 

Objective: Deployment of the LSCE’s benthic station. Studying carbon mineralization in Rhone delta sediments. Core sampling. The dates at sea for this cruise were: 26/02/2013 to 28/02/2013 (3 days) and 25/04/2013 to 30/04/2013 (6 days). This falls under the MERMEX_Rivers project.

 

 

2012

 

 

Objective: The SPECIMED-MVP cruises’ scientific objective is to map in 4 seasons physical, chemical and biological parameters using a Moving Vessel Profiler 200 (MVP) and its sensors (LOPC, CTD, fluorimeter) along strategic legs in the Gulf of Lion, the North Current and the Central gyre. The proposed strategy relies on implementing quasi-synoptic observations of biogeochemical variables which are representative of distributions of phyto- and zooplankton, and 3D numerical models on the scale of the study area to enable spatialized interpretation of the observations. 4 sea outings planned over the year: 9-15 January, 27 May-2 June (12450100), 21-28 August (12450110), 4-10 December (cancelled).

 

Objective: Observation of fluxes of suspended matter in the Gulf of Lion. Leg 1 took place from 25 March to 1st April 2012 and leg 2 from 28 August to 4 September 2012. The related project is MERMEX.

 

Objective: The DoWEX2012 cruise provides the most adequate complement to the SOERE MOOSE observation system components to better characterize the seasonal evolution of physical and biogeochemical characteristics in the North West Mediterranean on the most relevant spatial scales. For the seasonal scale, it is vital to have a sufficiently clear image of the state of the North Western Basin overall and the aim of the DoWEX2012 hydrographic cruise is to supply it for a limited number of parameters, i.e. those which can be measured with a rosette, automatically over the entire water column then calibrated using water samples. This strategy has been used by MOOSE’s once-yearly cruises since 2010 in late spring/ early summer, which DoWEX2012 would duplicate for the autumn period. The envisaged hydrological array would comprise about 70 stations covering the entire North gyre which could best characterize the main features of the circulation, such as boundary currents and the gyre centre. The DoWEX experiment and DoWEX2012 cruise are part of the MERMEX programme and are principally related to the theme called Impacts of hydrodynamic conditions on biogeochemical budgets. DoWEX2012 cruise funding was provided by MERMEX.

 

  • CARBORHONE
Objective: The main objective of the CARBORHONE cruises was to study air-sea CO2 exchanges in the Gulf of Lion and the Rhone delta. Biogeochemical characteristics of surface waters are influenced by river inflows from the Rhone. Therefore, there were several main technical objectives: 1) Acquiring the maximum amount of data on surface temperature and salinity by using RV Téthys 2’s TSG to map the Rhone river plume; 2) acquire the most surface data possible for pCO2 and dissolved O2 to calculate the air-sea exchanges in the estuary and on the shelf; 3)- covering a network of 31 stations on the shelf with CTD profiles and sampling a series of biogeochemical parameters in order to determine which processes control these exchanges of CO2 between the air and sea. These studies will make it possible to determine how the estuarine plume influences air-sea fluxes of CO2 over the entire shelf, which factors control inter-seasonal variations of these CO2 fluxes and how variable the CO2 air-sea fluxes are in the range of estuarine plumes encountered on the global scale of the ocean. The related project is MERMEX CARBORHONE, financed by INSU.

 

 

2011
Objective: The deep basin and continental shelf of the Gulf of Lion (North Western Mediterranean) are known for the formation of dense water in wintertime by the action of N-NW continental winds. This dense water is formed both offshore and at the coast. The area of Cap de Creus and its adjacent canyon is the main zone where dense coastal water is exported. Dense water dynamics on the continental shelf are also influenced by E-SE storms. Transfers of organic, inorganic, particulate and dissolved matter from the surface to the deep basin and from the shelf towards the slope by these physical processes can influence the redistribution of chemical elements in sediments, as well as the structure and functioning of benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The CASCADE cruise aimed to determine the characteristics of these two physical mechanisms and their numerous impacts, as well as monitoring changes in the hydrology, dynamics, sedimentology and biogeochemistry of water bodies. We propose a qualitative and quantitative estimate of particulate and dissolved, organic and inorganic matter fluxes exported towards the slope and the deep basin by these mechanisms

 

 

Objective: To map the physical and biological fields in the North Western Mediterranean sea. To quantify stocks of nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton in the North Western Mediterranean sea. To validate size structure from captors and from samples. To identify linkages between size structure and community structure for phyto- and zooplankton. To identify distribution patterns and gradients of T, S, nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The cruise is part of the ANR COSTAS project.

 

Objective: The objective of the related programme (ANR COSTAS) is to study transfers of chemical contaminants from the water column to small pelagics, via the various levels of the food web in the Gulf of Lion, and to model them. The specific objective of this cruise, which is the second in a series of 3 (COSTEAU-1, 3 and 5), is to sample the Gulf of Lion water column in winter, in terms of the dissolved phase, particulate phase and plankton, the latter then separated into various size classes in order to analyze the selected chemical contaminants (PCB, PBDE, trace metals). The strategy consists in pumping large volumes of water and separating the particulate phases using a cascading system of several mesh sizes to apprehend the small forms (< 200 µm), supplemented by trawl samples to apprehend the larger forms (200′ 2000 µm). In addition, water samples to be used to analyze dissolved contaminants were also taken by pumping. The related project is COSTAS (ANR CES)

 

 

2010
Objective: 1. Mapping the physical and biological fields in the North Western Mediterranean sea; 2. Quantifying stocks of nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton in the North Western Mediterranean sea; 3. Validating size structure using sensors and samples; 4. Identifying linkages between size structure and community structure for phyto- and zooplankton; 5. To identify distribution patterns and gradients of T, S, nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton. Project: ANR COSTAS

 

Objective: The objective of the related programme (ANR COSTAS) is to study transfers of chemical contaminants from the water column to small pelagics, via the various levels of the food web in the Gulf of Lion, and to model them. The specific objective of this cruise, which is the second in a series of 3 (COSTEAU-1, 3 and 5) is to sample the Gulf of Lion water column in springtime in terms of the dissolved phase, particulate phase and plankton, the latter then separated into various size classes in order to analyze the selected chemical contaminants (PCB, PBDE, trace metals). The strategy consists in pumping large volumes of water and separating the particulate phases using a cascading system of several mesh sizes to apprehend the small forms (< 200 µm), supplemented by trawl samples to apprehend the larger forms (200-2000 µm). In addition, water samples to be used to analyze dissolved contaminants were also taken by pumping.